What are the lithium batteries? Which lithium battery materials are the most popular? Here, we at Batteries.ldt have summarized eight lithium battery materials that are worth looking forward to in the next few years.
The application of ternary materials, lithium-rich manganese-based materials, high-voltage electrolyte materials, silicon-carbon anode materials, graphene, CNTs, and some safety accessories will be a hot spot in recent years. There is no absolute difference between good and bad materials. It mainly depends on whether different material systems are matched and whether there are related supporting processes to support them. In this article, the editor of Cuneng Electric summarized the top ten lithium battery materials that are worth looking forward to in the next few years.
1, high nickel ternary material
The high nickel and low cobaltization of ternary cathode materials has obvious advantages in improving battery energy density and reducing material costs, but the safety and stability issues are more prominent. The higher the nickel content in the ternary material, the worse the stability of the material and the worse the safety. In order to maintain its high specific energy while taking into account cycle life and safety, domestic materials and battery companies have worked hard, and their safety issues are still being solved.
At present, the safety of high nickel ternary materials is gradually solved through material modification optimization, surface coating, adjustment of electrolyte and negative electrode materials, etc. I believe that this problem will eventually be solved as time goes by and the research is deepened. Therefore, the editor is optimistic about the future prospects of high nickel ternary materials.
2, nickel-cobalt-manganese ternary materials
From a market perspective, the domestic power battery route used to be dominated by lithium iron phosphate battery packs. Although lithium iron phosphate is highly safe, its low energy density cannot be overcome, and new energy vehicles require longer cruising range. Therefore, in the long run, nickel-cobalt-manganese ternary materials with higher capacity will replace lithium iron phosphate as the next-generation mainstream technology route.
Currently, ternary materials have great development prospects as a technical route with high cost performance and the most potential to meet market demand and policy requirements.
3, silicon carbon composite anode material
Silicon can be alloyed with lithium at room temperature to form Li15Si4 phase. The theoretical specific capacity is as high as 3572 mAh/g, which is much higher than the theoretical specific capacity of commercial graphite (372 mAh/g). The reserves of elements in the earth's crust are as high as 26.4%, so the silicon anode The material has always attracted much attention, and it is one of the next generation lithium-ion battery anode materials worth looking forward to.
In recent years, the related technology of silicon-carbon anode materials has developed rapidly. So far, a small number of products have been put into practical use. Japan's Hitachi Group Maxell Company has developed a new type of lithium battery with "SiO-C" material as the negative electrode, and has successfully applied it to In commercial products such as smart phones.
4, lithium-rich manganese-based materials
High capacity is one of the development directions of lithium battery packs, but the energy density of lithium iron phosphate in the current cathode material is 580Wh/kg, the energy density of lithium nickel cobalt manganate is 750Wh/kg, and the theoretical energy density of lithium-rich manganese-based It can reach 900Wh/kg, with great potential in the future.
The advantages of lithium-rich manganese base as a cathode material are: high energy density and abundant main raw materials. Although lithium-rich manganese-based cathode materials have an absolute advantage in specific discharge capacity, to actually apply them to power lithium batteries, the following key scientific and technical problems must be solved: one is to reduce the first irreversible capacity loss; the other is to improve rate performance And cycle life; The third is to suppress the voltage attenuation during the cycle.
Graphene has a two-dimensional structure with a single layer of atomic thickness, the structure is stable, and the electrical conductivity can reach 1×106S/m. Graphene has the following advantages when used in lithium-ion batteries:
▲Good electrical and thermal conductivity, which helps to improve the rate performance and safety of the battery;
▲Compared with graphite, graphene has more lithium storage space, which can increase the energy density of the battery;
▲The particle size is on the order of micro-nano, and the diffusion path of lithium ions is short, which is beneficial to improve the power performance of the battery. As a positive and negative electrode additive, it can improve the stability of lithium battery packs, extend cycle life, and increase internal conductivity.
6, coated diaphragm
Coating the separator can improve the heat shrinkage resistance of the separator and prevent large-area short circuit caused by the shrinkage of the separator; in addition, the low thermal conductivity of the coating material can prevent some thermal runaway points in the battery from expanding and forming an overall thermal runaway.
The separator is very important to the safety of lithium battery packs. This requires the separator to have good electrochemical and thermal stability, and maintain a high degree of wettability to the electrolyte during repeated charging and discharging. From the perspective of the future development trend of lithium batteries, the coated diaphragm matches the current development of lithium battery technology, and the high-safety and high-stability diaphragm will be a research hotspot in the next seven or eight years.
7, carbon nanotubes
Carbon nanotube is a carbon material with a graphitized structure. It has excellent electrical conductivity. At the same time, because of its small depth and short stroke when releasing lithium, it has less polarization effect when charging and discharging at high rates as a negative electrode material, which can improve The battery's high rate charge and discharge performance.
Carbon nanotubes still have the problems of large irreversible capacity, wide voltage range and obvious voltage hysteresis in practical applications. At the same time, due to cost issues, carbon nanotubes still have a long way to go from practical applications, but they are added as a conductive agent to improve the conductivity of the electrode and reduce the polarization of the battery, and they have been applied in actual production.
8. Ceramic alumina
Among the coated diaphragms, ceramic coated diaphragms are mainly for power battery systems, so the market growth space is larger than that of rubberized diaphragms.
With the ternary power battery gradually becoming the mainstream power battery, ceramic coated separators will become a new growth point in the lithium battery pack separator market. However, it is still necessary to improve the uniformity and stability of key parameters such as diaphragm pore size, porosity, and air permeability. In the future, mastering the cutting-edge technology of ceramic coated diaphragms will help enterprises to seize the initiative in the subsequent competition.
The above are the eight major lithium battery pack materials that are worth looking forward to in the future. High-tech is a powerful driving force for the development of modern economy and society, and new materials are the cornerstone of high-tech. The discovery of new materials promotes the development of high-tech. In the development of the new energy industry, new materials are needed as support.
Cunneng Electric’s lithium iron phosphate battery pack has won unanimous praise from users in various industries with its stable performance and excellent technology. It is a trustworthy new high-tech product in the lithium battery UPS industry.