What is a Battery?

A battery, can be any device that stores energy for later use. The word battery, is limited to an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy into electricity, by use of a galvanic cell. A galvanic cell is a fairly simple device consisting of two electrodes (an anode and a cathode) and an electrolyte solution. Batteries consist of one or more galvanic cells.

A battery is an electrical storage device. Batteries do not make electricity, they store it. As chemicals in the battery change, electrical energy is stored or released. In rechargeable batteries this process can be repeated many times. Batteries are not 100% efficient - some energy is lost as heat and chemical reactions when charging and discharging. If you use 1000 watts from a battery, it might take 1200 watts or more to fully recharge it. Slower charging and discharging rates are more efficient. A battery rated at 180 amp-hours over 6 hours might be rated at 220 AH at the 20-hour rate, and 260 AH at the 48-hour rate. Typical efficiency in a lead-acid battery is 85-95%, in alkaline and NiCad battery it is about 65%.

What are some of the major types of lead-acid batteries?

Batteries are divided in two ways, application (what they are used for) and construction (how they are built). The major applications are automotive, marine, and deep-cycle. Deep-cycle includes solar electric (PV), backup power, and RV and boat "house" batteries. The major construction types are flooded (wet), gelled, and AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat). AGM batteries are also sometimes called "starved electrolyte" or "dry", because the fiberglass mat is only 95% saturated with Sulfuric acid and there is no excess liquid. Flooded may be standard, with removable caps, or the so-called "maintenance free" (that means they are designed to die one week after the warranty runs out). All gelled are sealed and a few are "valve regulated", which means that a tiny valve keeps a slight positive pressure. Nearly all AGM batteries are sealed valve regulated (commonly referred to as "VRLA" - Valve Regulated Lead-Acid). Most valve regulated are under some pressure - 1 to 4 psi at sea level.

What is a Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Battery?

Li-Ion has quickly become the emerging standard for portable power in consumer devices. Li-Ion batteries produce the same energy as NiMH batteries but weigh approximately 35% less. This is crucial in applications such as camcorders or notebook computers where the battery makes up a significant portion of the device's weight. Another reason Li-Ion batteries have become so popular is that they do not suffer from the memory effect AT ALL. They are also environmentally friendly because they don't contain toxic materials such as Cadmium or Mercury.

What is the capacity of the battery?

The capacity of the battery can be divided into rated capacity and actual capacity. The rated capacity of the battery refers to the requirement or guarantee that the battery should discharge the minimum amount of electricity under certain discharge conditions when designing and manufacturing the battery. Li ion stipulates that the battery shall be charged for 3h under the charging conditions controlled by normal temperature, constant current (1c) and constant voltage (4.2V). The actual capacity of the battery refers to the actual power discharged by the battery under certain discharge conditions, which is mainly affected by the discharge ratio and temperature (therefore, strictly speaking, the battery capacity shall specify the charge and discharge conditions). Common units of capacity are: MAH, ah = 1000mah).


Solar panels are composed of solar cells, which can convert solar energy in sunlight into electric energy. Because solar cells can generate electricity directly from sunlight, it is the most reliable of all our power generation technologies, which is why solar cells are widely used in space and some remote areas where it is difficult to solve problems.

Solar panels are composed of solar cells, which can convert solar energy in sunlight into electric energy. Because solar cells can generate electricity directly from sunlight, it is the most reliable of all our power generation technologies, which is why solar cells are widely used in space and some remote areas where it is difficult to solve problems.
How do solar cells work?
Solar cells consist of silicon atoms. You can think of atoms as building blocks - like Lego blocks, but because atoms are so small, you need special tools to see them. Solar cells come from a layer of silicon wafers, which are similar in size to dinner plates, but much thinner - only about three times thicker than ordinary hair.
Turning the silicon crystal layer into a solar panel requires a special preparation process. The silicon crystal layer should be heated to 1000 ℃, and then a layer of metal sheet should be placed on the back of the layer. At the same time, a layer of metal mesh with holes should be covered on the solar cell and let this surface rush to the sun.
When 60 solar cells are prepared, they will be fixed on a layer of glass to make solar panels. Generally speaking, the solar power supply system on the roof has 10-50 solar panels, while millions of solar panels are installed in rural solar power plants.
Every silicon atom contains very small and light electrons with weak charges. When sunlight falls on a solar panel, it hits one of the electrons and takes it out of its orbit. These hit electrons can move freely, but the special structure of the battery makes the electrons move only in one direction towards the sun.
Therefore, when the sun falls on the solar cell, many electrons will break away from their orbit and become free electrons. Because of the characteristics of the solar cell, electrons can only move upward, resulting in an electric current that can drive household appliances.
The stronger the sunlight falling on the solar cell, the more electrons will be knocked out of their orbit, and the greater the current generated. If the weather is not clear, the number of electrons hit will be reduced and the current generated will be reduced by 75% or more. At night, the solar panel will not produce any electric energy. At this time, the power supply completely depends on the battery or other power sources.
How should we use solar cells?
Solar cells are the cheapest way to generate electricity - even cheaper than a new thermal power plant or nuclear power plant. This is why the global installation rate of solar cells is five times that of coal power and 20 times that of nuclear power.
In Australia, the newly built power stations are basically solar power plants or wind power plants. Electric vehicles using solar and wind power can replace polluting gasoline vehicles. Solar and wind power generation can also be used for house heating and cooling, replacing the traditional coal and natural gas heating.
The use of solar and wind energy can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions that cause damage to the earth. Compared with other energy sources, the cost of solar and wind energy is very low and will become lower; If we use more wind or solar energy, we can accelerate the reduction of the use of traditional energy (such as coal, oil and natural gas) that harm the earth.
In addition, silicon atom is the second largest atom in the world (the first is oxygen atom). In fact, most sand and stones are made of silicon and oxygen, so we can't use up all the silicon for the preparation of solar cells.

What is the difference between connecting batteries in series and parallel?
In a series connection, batteries of like voltage and amp-hour capacity are connected to increase the voltage of the overall assembly. In a parallel connection, batteries of like voltages and capacities are connected to increase the capacity of the overall assembly.

Do batteries last longer in parallel or series?
When batteries are hooked up In series , the voltage is increased. For example, two - 6 Volt batteries connected in series produce 12 Volts. When batteries are hooked up in parallel , the voltage remains the same, but the power (or available current) is increased. This means that the batteries would last longer .