The full name of the solar controller is the solar charge and discharge controller. It is an automatic control device used in the solar power generation system to control the multi-channel solar cell array to charge the battery and the battery to supply power to the solar inverter load. It regulates and controls the charging and discharging conditions of the battery, and controls the power output of the solar cell components and the battery to the load in accordance with the power demand of the load. It is the core control part of the entire photovoltaic power supply system.
Features of solar controller:
1. Using a single-chip microcomputer and special software to realize intelligent control;
2. Accurate discharge control using battery discharge rate characteristic correction. The end-of-discharge voltage is the control point corrected by the discharge rate curve, which eliminates the inaccuracy of the over-discharge of simple voltage control, and conforms to the inherent characteristics of the battery, that is, different discharge rates have different end voltages;
3. Fully automatic control of overcharge, overdischarge, electronic short circuit, overload protection, unique anti-reverse connection protection, etc.; none of the above protections will damage any parts, and will not burn insurance;
4. The series-type PWM charging main circuit is adopted, which reduces the voltage loss of the charging circuit by nearly half compared with the charging circuit using diodes, and the charging efficiency is 3%-6% higher than that of non-PWM charging, which increases the power consumption time; improves over-discharge recovery Charging, normal direct charging, and automatic floating charging control methods make the system have a longer service life; at the same time it has high-precision temperature compensation;
5. The intuitive LED luminous tube indicates the current battery status, allowing users to understand the usage status;
6. All controls use industrial-grade chips (only for industrial-grade controllers with I), which can run freely in cold, high temperature, and humid environments. At the same time, the crystal oscillator timing control is used, and the timing control is accurate;
7. The potentiometer adjustment control set point is canceled, and the E-square memory is used to record each work control point, so that the setting is digitized, and the error of the control point due to the vibration of the potentiometer, temperature drift, etc., is eliminated. The accuracy and reliability Sexual factors;
8. The digital LED display and settings are used, and all settings can be completed by one-button operation. It is extremely convenient and intuitive to use to control the working status of the entire system, and to protect the battery from overcharging and overdischarging. In places with large temperature differences, a qualified controller should also have the function of temperature compensation. Other additional functions such as light control switch and time control switch should be optional options of the controller.
Solar controller control mode:
1. Pure light control mode: When there is no sunlight, the light intensity drops to the starting point. After the controller confirms the start signal after a delay of 10 minutes, the load is turned on according to the set parameters, and the load starts to work; when there is sunlight, the light intensity rises to start Point, the controller delays for 10 minutes to confirm the shutdown signal and then closes the output, and the load stops working.
2. Light control plus time control mode: the startup process is the same as pure light control, when the load is working to the set time, it will automatically turn off, and the set time is 1 to 14 hours.
3. Manual mode: In this mode, the user can control the opening and closing of the load by pressing the buttons, regardless of whether it is during the day or at night. This mode is used for some special load occasions or during debugging.
4. Debugging mode: used for system debugging. When there is a light signal, the load is turned off, and the load is turned on without a light signal, which is convenient for checking the correctness of the system installation during installation and debugging.
5. Normally open mode: The load has been powered on and keeps the output state. This mode is suitable for loads that require 24 hours of power supply.
Advantages of modern controllers:
1. Overcharge protection: When the charging voltage is higher than the protection voltage, the battery will be automatically turned off to charge the battery. After that, when the voltage drops to the maintenance voltage, the battery will enter the floating charge state. When the voltage is lower than the recovery voltage, the float charge will be turned off and enter the equal charge state. .
2. Over-discharge protection: When the battery voltage is lower than the protection voltage, the controller automatically turns off the output to protect the battery from damage; when the battery is recharged, it can automatically restore power.
3. Load over-current and short-circuit protection: After the load current exceeds 10A or the load is short-circuited, the fuse is blown, and can be used after replacement.
4. Overvoltage protection: When the voltage is too high, the output is automatically turned off to protect the electrical appliances from damage.
5. With anti-reverse charging function: Schottky diodes are used to prevent the storage battery from charging the solar battery.
6. With lightning protection function: when there is a lightning strike, the varistor can prevent lightning strikes and protect the controller from damage.
7. Solar battery reverse connection protection: solar battery "+" "-" polarity connection is reversed, it can be used continuously after correction.
8. Battery reverse connection protection: the battery "+" and "-" are connected in reverse polarity, the fuse is blown, and it can be used after replacement
9. Battery open circuit protection: In case the battery is open circuit, if the solar battery is charging normally, the controller will limit the voltage at both ends of the load to ensure that the load is not damaged. If at night or when the solar battery is not charging, the controller will have Without power, there will be no action.
10. With temperature compensation function.
11. Self-inspection: When the controller is affected by natural factors or improperly operated by humans, the controller can be self-inspected to let people know whether the controller is intact, reducing a lot of unnecessary man-hours, and creating conditions for winning the quality of the project and the construction period. .
12. Recovery interval: It is the recovery interval for overcharge or overdischarge protection to avoid the load's work movement caused by the line resistance or the self-recovery characteristics of the battery.
13. Temperature compensation: monitor the temperature of the battery, and correct the charging and discharging value to make the battery work in an ideal state.
14. Light control: It is mostly used for automatic lamps. When the environment is bright enough, the controller will automatically turn off the load output; and when the environment is dark, it will automatically turn on the load to realize the function of automatic control.